The information for this map was provided by students in Professor Nackenoff’s Fall 2020 American Elections class at Swarthmore College (POLS 22). Each student was responsible for researching changes in election laws affecting registration, early voting, absentee voting, mail-in voting, voter ID, and felon disenfranchisement from 2004 forward.

In 2020, to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, a number of states introduced temporary measures affecting voting and access to ballots; these are not reflected in this map as they do not reflect permanent changes in voting law.

The map covers the period following the 2002 Help America Vote Act and most state efforts to tighten access to the ballot box following the razor-thin margin of victory in the election of 2000. Since the Indiana photo ID law of 2005 was upheld by the Supreme Court in 2008 and was implemented there (along with another strict photo ID law in Georgia) in that year, a number of other states followed in their wake.

The only entry made in advance of the student assignment concerned states covered in whole or in part by preclearance provisions of the Voting Rights Act at the time of Shelby County v. Holder (2013).

WordPress was used to generate the map and the display of information for each state. A summer 2016 SPEED grant (Swarthmore Projects for Educational Exploration and Development) brought the talents of software developers, librarians, academic technologists, and student interns to bear on design, data display, and accessibility for those with disabilities.

Questions or comments may be directed to cnacken1@swarthmore.edu.